| Historical Reference.
(a marine route between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans):
The North Marine Route was officially
discovered by the crew of the British expedition under
the leadership of Robert John McClure in 1850-1854 (this
route was passed on two ships and partially – on foot
over the ice from the west to the east).
For the first time this route was passed
by water in 1903-1906 (from the east to the west) by the
Norwegian expedition under the leadership of Roald Amundsen,
on Gjoa, a sailing vessel with an engine. This was actually
the discovery of the Northwest Passage.
This route was completely passed by water
in the opposite direction (from the west to the east)
by the Canadian crew under the guidance of Henry Larsen
on a motor schooner "Saint Rock" in 1940-42.
In 1944 Henry Larsen sailed through the
Northwest passage during one navigation period.
In 1977 for the first time Willi de Roos,
Belgium, sailed through the Northwest Passage on yacht
(solo and during one navigation).
(a marine route between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans
along the northern coast of Eurasia; in Russia it is called
as the North Marine Route):
For the first time the Northeast Passage
was passed by the Swedish expedition (from the west to
the east) under the guidance of Adolf Erik Nordenskjold
on the Vega ship in 1878-1879.
In 1913-1915 this Passage was for the
first time passed from the east to the west by the Russian
Arctic Ocean Hydrographic Expedition under the command
of Boris Andreyevich Vilkitskiy on the icebreaker ships
Taymyr and Vaygach.
In 1932 the Northeast Passage was for
the first time passed during one navigation by the Soviet
expedition on the Sibiryakov icebreaker ship (Otto Schmidt
– the head of the expedition, Vladimir Voronin – a skipper).
In 1998-1999 the Northeast Passage was
for the first time was passed through by the Russian crew
on a cruiser yacht (the yacht Apostol Andrey, the owner
– Adventure Club, a skipper – Nikolay Litau).
In 2002 the Northeast Passage was for
the first time passed through during one navigation by
the French expedition under the command of Eric Brossier
(the yacht Vagabond).
The perimeter of the Arctic Ocean:
In 1903-1906 the perimeter of the Arctic
Ocean was for the first time passed by Roald Amundsen,
Norwegian explorer, on his yacht Gjoa (the Northwest Passage)
and the ship Maud (the Northeast Passage).
The French yacht Vagabond became the first
yacht, which sailed along the perimeter of the Arctic
Ocean in 1982-1988 (the Northwest Passage) and in 2002
(the Northeast Passage).